Formenlehre: Einheit 16 – Popularmusik des 20. Jahrhunderts

Musical, Rocksong, Popsong, EDM und Techno; Strophenformen


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Songform im Broadway-Musical

Typisches Formmodell eines Tin-Pan-Alley-Songs der 1920er und 1930er Jahre: Intro – Strophe – Refrain
Der Refrain besitzt eine standardisierte Struktur, in der Regel 32 Takte, die nach Art einer Reprisenbarform (aaba') gestaltet sind
Ein Refrainverlauf lässt sich häufig auch als Variante des SRDC-Schemas auffassen (statement, restatement, departure, conclusion)

Intro
Strophe
Refrain 1 (aaba')
Solo
Refrain 2 (aaba')
Intro
Strophe

Days can be sunny, with never a sigh, don't need what money can buy.
Birds in the trees sing their day full of song, why shouldn't we sing along?
I'm chipper all the day, happy with my lot,
How do I get that way, look at what I've got.

Refrain 1 (aaba')

34taktiger Refrain nach dem Schema aaba'
aI got rhythm, I got music, I got my man, who could ask for anything more?
aI got daisies in green pastures, I got my man, who could ask for anything more?
bOld man trouble, I don't mind him, you won't find him 'round my door.
a'I got starlight, I got sweet dreams, I got my man, who could ask for anything more.

Solo

Klaviersolo über das aaba'-Schema

Refrain 2 (aaba')

aI got rhythm, I got music, I got my man, who could ask for anything more?
aI got daisies in green pastures, I got my man, who could ask for anything more?
bOld man trouble, I don't mind him, you won't find him 'round my door.
a'I got starlight, I got sweet dreams, I got my man, who could ask for anything more.

more ...
--:-- / --:--

George und Ira Gershwin: I Got Rhythm, aus dem Musical Girl Crazy (1930)
Quelle: YouTube

Strophenform in Rocksongs

Verse-Form (AAAA ...) mit mehrfacher Wiederholung einer Strophe; die letzte kann einen Ton aufwärts gerückt werden
Verse-Bridge-Form (AABA bzw. AABABA) mit Wechsel zwischen zwei geringfügig kontrastierenden Formteilen
Der Verse kann eine Refrainzeile enthalten; die Bridge besitzt den Charakter eines Mittelteils (evtl. mit Solo), ist aber kein klar abgesetzter Chorus

Intro
Verse 1
Verse 2
Verse 3
Solo
Verse 4
Verse 5 (mit Fadeout)
Intro
Verse 1

Achttaktige Strophe: The warden threw a party in the county jail, the prison band was there and they began to wail,
The band was jumpin' and the joint began to swing, you should've heard those knocked out jailbirds sing.

Refrainzeile über ein achttaktiges Blues-Schema ( IV – IV – I – I – V – IV – I – I):
Let's rock, everybody let's rock, everybody in the whole cell block was dancin' to the Jailhouse Rock.

Verse 2

Spider Murphy played the tenor saxophone, Little Joe was blowin' on the slide trombone,
The drummer boy from Illinois went crash, boom, bang, the whole rhythm section was a purple gang

Let's rock, everybody let's rock ...

Verse 3

Number 47 said to number 3: You're the cutest jailbird I ever did see,
I sure would be delighted with your company, come on and do the Jailhouse Rock with me.

Let's rock, everybody let's rock ...

Solo

Gitarrensolo

Verse 4

Sad Sack was sittin' on a block of stone, way over in the corner weepin' all alone,
The warden said: Hey, buddy, don't you be no square, if you can't find a partner use a wooden chair

Let's rock, everybody let's rock ...

Verse 5 (mit Fadeout)

Shifty Henry said to Bugs: For heaven's sake, no one's lookin', now's the chance to make a break.
Bugsy turned to Shifty and he said: Nix nix, I wanna stick around a while and get my kicks.

Let's rock, everybody let's rock ...

more ...
--:-- / --:--

Elvis Presley: Jailhouse Rock, aus dem gleichnamigen Film (1957)
Quelle: YouTube

Intro
Verse 1
Verse 2
Bridge
Verse 3
Outro
Intro

ab Takt 11: markantes Gitarrenriff (I – I – III – IV)

Verse 1

Purple haze all in my brain, lately things they don't seem the same,
Actin' funny, but I don't know why, excuse me while I kiss the sky.

[call and response]

Verse 2

Purple haze, all around, don't know if I'm comin' up or down,
Am I happy or in misery? What ever it is, that girl put a spell on me.

[call and response]

Bridge

Gitarrensolo
Help me, help me, oh, no, no ... oh, ah, yeah

Verse 3

Purple haze all in my eyes, don't know if it's day or night,
You got me blowin', blowin' my mind, is it tomorrow, or just the end of time?

[call and response]

Outro

Gitarrensolo, anknüpfend an die Bridge
Oh, help me, ah yeah, purple haze ... oh no, oh help me, tell me, purple haze

more ...
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Jimi Hendrix: Purple Haze, vom Album Are You Experienced (1967)
Quelle: YouTube

Strophenform in Popsongs

Verse-Chorus-Form (AABAB, AABAAB, ABABABB etc.) oder Verse-Chorus-Bridge-Form (ABABCBB etc.)
Wechsel zwischen zwei deutlich kontrastierenden Formteilen: schlichterer Verse, intensiverer Chorus (evtl. mit Prechorus)
Merkmale eines Chorus gegenüber einer Bridge: Einsatz neuer Singstimmen oder Instrumente, ggf. wiederholter Text

Verse 1
Verse 2
Chorus
Solo
Verse 3 (wie 1)
Chorus variiert
Verse 1

Close your eyes and I'll kiss you, tomorrow I'll miss you,
Remember I'll always be true,
And then while I'm away, I'll write home every day,
And I'll send all my loving to you.

Verse 2

I'll pretend that I'm kissing the lips I am missing,
And hope that my dreams will come true,
And then while I'm away, I'll write home every day,
And I'll send all my loving to you.

Chorus

All my loving I will send to you,
All my loving, darling, I'll be true.

Solo

Gitarrensolo

Verse 3 (wie 1)

Close your eyes and I'll kiss you, tomorrow I'll miss you,
Remember I'll always be true,
And then while I'm away, I'll write home every day,
And I'll send all my loving to you.

Chorus variiert

All my loving I will send to you,
All my loving, darling, I'll be true.

more ...
--:-- / --:--

The Beatles: All My Loving, vom Album With The Beatles (1963)
Quelle: YouTube

Intro
Verse 1
Pre
Chorus (aaba)
Verse 2
Pre
Chorus erweitert (aabaa aaba)
Outro
Intro
Verse 1

I've been cheated by you since I don't know when,
So I made up my mind, it must come to an end,
Look at me now, will I ever learn? I don't know how, but I suddenly lose control,
There's a fire within my soul.

Pre

Just one look and I can hear a bell ring,
One more look and I forget everything, oh, oh.

Chorus (aaba)

18taktiger Chorus nach dem Schema aaba
aMamma mia, here I go again, my my, how can I resist you?
aMamma mia, does it show again, my my, just how much I've missed you?
bYes, I've been broken-hearted, blue since the day we parted, why, why did I ever let you go?
aMamma mia, now I really know, my my, I could never let you go.
[kurze Passage aus der Intro]

Verse 2

I've been angry and sad about things that you do,
I can't count all the times that I've told you we're through,
And when you go, when you slam the door, I think you know that you won't be away too long,
You know that I'm not that strong.

Pre

Just one look and I can hear a bell ring,
One more look and I forget everything, oh, oh.

Chorus erweitert (aabaa aaba)

aMamma mia, here I go again, my my, how can I resist you?
aMamma mia, does it show again, my my, just how much I've missed you?
bYes, I've been broken-hearted, blue since the day we parted, why, why did I ever let you go?
aMamma mia, even if I say bye-bye, leave me now or never,
aMamma mia, it's a game we play, bye-bye doesn't mean forever.
[...]
aMamma mia, now I really know, my my, I could never let you go.

Outro
more ...
--:-- / --:--

ABBA: Mamma Mia, vom Album ABBA (1975)
Quelle: YouTube

Dramaturgie in EDM und Techno-Tracks

Additive Form: Patterns (repetitive Strukturen aus Melodiesegmenten, Akkordfolgen, Drumloops) werden zu Formteilen zusammengesetzt
An Stelle eines Verse: ein oder mehrere sich in Wellen steigernde Teile (build-up), gesteuert durch die Basslinie und kick drum
An Stelle einer Bridge: ruhigerer oder sphärischer Mittelteil (break) ohne Drums, gefolgt vom Eintritt der Hookline und Rückkehr der Drums (drop)
Hookline: melodisch und / oder harmonisch definierter Hauptteil (tritt an die Stelle des Chorus), führt zum Höhepunkt des Titels

Intro
Build-up
Drop
Break
Hook
Drop / Hook (mit Fadeout)
Intro
Build-up

Steigerung über Akkordpattern
Textteil A: Deep in the bosom of the gentle night ...

Drop

Einsatz Kickdrum über Akkordpattern

Break

Einsatz Streicher, Basslinie verebbt zum Break
Textteil B: I used to worry, thought I was going mad in a hurry ...

Hook

Hookline: Pizzicato-Akkordfolge (I – I – V – VI), Steigerung über Drumroll
Refrain-Text: I can't get no sleep ...

Drop / Hook (mit Fadeout)

Einsatz Kickdrum über Hookline
Refrain-Text: I need to sleep, I can't get no sleep ...

more ...
--:-- / --:--

Faithless: Insomnia, vom Album Reverence (1995)
Quelle: YouTube